Looking at Buildings

Building Types

Further Reading

Popular and Illustrated

Breffny, Brian de

The Synagogue (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1978)

Folberg, Neil

And I shall dwell among them: Historic Synagogues of the World (New York: Aperture 1996) [Photographs]

Gruber, Samuel

Synagogues (New York; Metro Books 1999) [Photographs]

Jarrassé, Dominique

Synagogues (Paris: AdamGlossary Term Biro 2001)

Kadish, Sharman

Synagogues (Oxford: Heinemann Library Places of Worship series) [Clear introduction for children]

Meek, Harold

The Synagogue (London: Phaidon 1995)

Roth, Cecil (ed.),

Jewish Art: An Illustrated History (London: Vallentine Mitchell 2nd edn. ed. Bezalel Narkiss, 1971)

Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle (ed.),

Jewish Art (New York: Harry N.Abrams 1997)

Shanks, Hershel

Judaism in Stone: The Archaeology of Ancient Synagogues (New York: Harper & Row and the Biblical Archaeology Society 1979)

Wigoder, Geoffrey

The Story of the Synagogue (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1986) [A Diaspora Museum book]

Yadin, Yigael,

Masada (New York: Random House 1966)

Archaeology and Ancient Jewish Art

Avi-Yonah, Michael

'Synagogue architecture in the late ClassicalGlossary Term period' in Roth (ed.) Jewish Art, op.cit. pp. 65-82

Art in Ancient Palestine (Jerusalem: 1981)

Branham, Joan R.

'Sacred Space under Erasure in Ancient Synagogues and Early Churches,' The Art Bulletin Vol.74 No.3 (September 1992) pp.375-394

Fine, Steven (ed.)

Sacred Realm: The Emergence of the Synagogue in the Ancient World (New York: Oxford University Press and Yeshiva University Museum 1996)

Goodenough, E.R.

Jewish Symbols in the Graeco-RomanGlossary Term Period 13 Vols. (Princeton: 1953-68)

One volume selection edited by Jacob Neusner (Princeton: 1988)

Gutman, Joseph (ed.)

The Synagogue: Studies in Origin, Archaeology and Architecture (New York: Ktav 1975)

Levine, Lee I.

(ed.) Ancient Synagogues Revealed (Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society 1981)

The Synagogue in Late Antiquity (Philadelphia 1987)

The Ancient Synagogue (Yale University Press 2000)

Sukenik, E.L.

Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece (London: 1934)

Urman, Dan and Flesher, Paul V.M. (eds.)

Ancient Synagogues: Historical Analysis and ArchaeologicalGlossary Term Discovery Vols 1 & 2 (Leiden: E.J.Brill 1995)

Yadin, Yigael

Jerusalem Revealed: Archaeology in the Holy City 1968-1974 (Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society and Yale 1976)

Medieval and Modern

Jamilly, Edward

'The Architecture of the contemporary synagogue' in Roth (ed.) Jewish Art, op.cit. pp.273-85

Kashtan, A.,

'Synagogue architecture of the medieval and pre-emancipation periods' in Roth (ed.) Jewish Art, op.cit pp.103-117

Krinsky, Carol Herselle

Synagogues of Europe (Cambridge MA: MIT Press 1985. 2nd edn. paperback New York: Dover Books 1996)

Narkiss, Bezalel

'The Heikhal, Bima and Tevah in Sephardi synagogues', Jewish Art Vol.18 (1992) pp.30-34

Rosenau, Helen

Vision of the Temple (London: Oresko Books 1979)

'The architecture of the synagogue in Neoclassicism and Historicism' in Moore Moore, Claire (ed.) The Visual Dimension: Aspects of Jewish Art (Boulder, San Francisco and Oxford: Westview Press, 1993) pp.83-103

Wischnitzer, Rachel

The Architecture of the European Synagogue (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America 1964)

Great Britain and Ireland

Glasman, Judy

'London Synagogues in the late 19th century: Design in Context', London Journal Vol.13 no.2 (1988) pp.143-155

'Assimilation by Design: London Synagogues in the 19th century' in Kushner (ed.) v.i. pp.171-209

Hillaby, Joe

'Beth Miqdash Me'at: The Synagogues of Medieval England' Journal of Ecclesiastical History Vol.44 No.2 (April) 1993 pp.182-198

Jamilly, Edward,

'Anglo-Jewish Architects, and Architecture in the 18th and 19th centuries', Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England Vol.18 (1958) pp.127-141

' Synagogue Art and Architecture' in Levin, Salmond S. (ed.) A Century of Anglo-Jewish Life, 1870-1970 (London: United Synagogue 1970) pp.75-91

'An Introduction to Victorian synagogues' Victorian Society Annual 1991 pp.22-35

Two essays in Kadish (ed.) v.i.

The GeorgianGlossary Term Synagogue (London: Jewish Memorial Council 1999)

Kadish, Sharman (ed.)

Building Jerusalem: Jewish Architecture in Britain (London: Vallentine Mitchell 1996)

'Eden in Albion: A History of the Mikveh in Britain', in (ed.) Building Jerusalem op.cit. pp.101-154

'Squandered Heritage: Jewish Buildings in Britain' in Kushner (ed.) v.i pp.147-165

Bevis Marks Synagogue 1701-2001 (Swindon: English Heritage 2001)



A style associated with the Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728-92), marked by delicate all-over ornament derived largely from the decoration of ancient Roman interiors. It is one of the major contributions to the Neo-Classical phase of British architecture.


In architecture, the accurate detailed use of a revived style, e.g. Greek or Gothic; hence archaeologically correct.


A term used for the architecture of Ancient Greece and Rome, revived at the Renaissance and subsequently imitated around the Western world. It uses a range of conventional forms, the roots of which are the orders, or types of column each with its fixed proportions and ornaments (especially Doric, Ionic and Corinthian). Classical buildings tend also to be symmetrical, both externally and on plan. Classical architecture in England began c. 1530 with applied ornamental motifs, followed within a few decades by fully-fledged new buildings.


The architecture of the British Isles in the reigns of George I, II, III and IV, i.e. 1714-1830, in which the classical style and classical proportions became the norm for both major and minor buildings.


The architecture of the Roman Empire, to which most of Britain belonged from 43 to c. 410 A.D. Our knowledge of Romano-British architecture depends mostly on archaeological reconstructions from foundations and fragments, though some notable fortifications and other military works survive above ground level in recognizable form.