Looking at Buildings

Styles & Traditions

Close Studding

Click to enlarge
Close studding
Click to enlarge
Norwich, Dragon Hall

CloseGlossary Term studding refers to upright timbers (studsGlossary Term) set closely together. The usual effect can be compared with the use of PerpendicularGlossary Term stone panellingGlossary Term; the aim was to create an impressive show front.

Timber framingGlossary Term was sometimes combined with stone walls as at Dragon Hall, Norwich.



The precinct of a cathedral. Also (Scots) a courtyard or passage giving access to a number of buildings.


Wooden lining to interior walls, made up of vertical members (muntins) and horizontals (rails) framing panels; also called wainscot. Raised and fielded: with the central area of the panel (field) raised up. Also used for stonework treated with sunk or raised panels.


English version of late Gothic, developed from the 1320s, which continued into the early 16th century; sometimes abbreviated to Perp. Characterised by large windows with a grid pattern of mullions and transoms, with the mullions continuing to the head to the arch, which is often of flattened or four-centred form. This motif of panel tracery is used also for wall decoration, and on the fan vaults that were used for the most prestigious buildings.


Subsidiary vertical timbers of a timber-framed wall or partition. Close studding has closely set studs of equal size.

Timber framing

Method of construction in which the structural frame is built of interlocking timbers. In close studding the uprights (studs) are set close together, in square panel construction the main uprights (posts) and horizontals (rails) form large square or near-square compartments. The spaces are filled with non-structural material, e.g. infill of wattle and daub, lath and plaster, brickwork (known as nogging), etc. and may be covered by plaster, weatherboarding (overlapping horizontal boards), or tiles.