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This is document 'Capitals', within the 'Styles & Traditions' section of the website. 
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The changing character of CAPITALS provides a useful guide to the stylistic developments of the C12 to C13. A capitalGlossary Term tapers downwards in orderGlossary Term from the square sectionGlossary Term of the wall which it carries, to the generally circular columnGlossary Term which it crowns. The most widespread types in C12 England were forms derived from the block capitalGlossary Term of ByzantineGlossary Term orign; the cushion capitalGlossary Term and its cousin, the scallop capitalGlossary Term.

In the later 12th century the lower part of the capitalGlossary Term was often given a concave profile; providing the form known as the 'trumpet scallop'. A contemporary form, used from c.1170-90, also with concave lower part, is the 'waterleafGlossary Term' capitalGlossary Term, with an upper part with inward curling leaves. Increased amount of undercutting with fine tools produced the moulded or bell capitalGlossary Term of the 13th century, where the top as well as the bottom is circular.

GothicGlossary Term capitals were influenced by the classicalGlossary Term CorinthianGlossary Term capitalGlossary Term, whose concave shape is marked by bands of curved leaves. The crocket capitalGlossary Term is the French GothicGlossary Term version, the stiffleaf capitalGlossary Term is an English development.

Travelling masons spread ideas across the country; stiffleaf capitals can be found throughout England and Wales.