The layout of central Liverpool is medieval in origin. From the late 18th century onwards the narrow, irregular streets were widened and straightened to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic of the burgeoning town, and in 1868 an entirely new street was opened - Victoria Street - cutting across the centre in a direct line from west to east. The most westerly part follows the courseGlossary Term of a pre-existing street, Temple Court, but the remainder was driven though a densely built-up area of insanitary property. As well as improving communications, the new street allowed this area to be rebuilt along more spacious and dignified lines. However, despite being a planned development, Victoria Street is far from uniform in its architecture. It has buildings in a wide variety of materials, in styles ranging from Queen AnneGlossary Term to TudorGlossary Term GothicGlossary Term. Most were designed by local architects, and they illustrate Victorian eclecticism at its most exuberant.
The western half of the street became the favoured location of fruit and produce dealers, Liverpool being the centre of this trade for much of the north of England in the late 19th century. Exchanges for these commodities were built, along with office blocks and warehousing for merchants. Banks were also located here, and in the 1890s the new General PostGlossary Term Office arose on the south side. Three railway companies established depots in Victoria Street, and the east end was occupied by the offices and printing presses of Liverpool's newspapers. The uses of most of these buildings have changed, but Victoria Street remains one of 19th-century Liverpool's best preserved commercial thoroughfares.
Continuous layer of stones, bricks etc. in a wall.
The style of the Middle Ages from the later 12th century to the Renaissance, with which it co-existed in certain forms into the 17th century. Characterized in its full development by the pointed arch, the rib-vault and an often skeletal masonry structure for churches, combined with large glazed windows. The term was originally associated with the concept of the barbarian Goths as assailants of classical civilization.
Upright support in a structure.
Not to be confused with the architecture of the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14), this usually refers to a later Victorian style that sought to revive the domestic classical manner of the mid 17th century. It favoured red brick or terracotta, usually combined with white-painted woodwork. It is particularly associated with the architect Richard Norman Shaw (1831-1912) and with the turn away from the Gothic Revival.
Strictly, the architecture of the English Tudor dynasty (1485-1603), but used more often for late Gothic secular buildings especially of the first half of the 16th century. These use a simplified version of Perpendicular, characterised by straight-headed mullioned windows with arched lights, and by rooflines with steep gables and tall chimneys, often asymmetrically placed.