Temporary framing of timber or metal used for casting concrete; also called shuttering.
A defensive ditch.
Four-centred arch
An arch with four arcs, the lower two curving inward more than the upper, with a blunt central point; typical of late medieval English architecture.
Framed building
One in which the structure is carried by a framework – e.g. of steel, reinforced concrete or timber – instead of by load-bearing walls.
Egham, Surrey
The style of the early French Renaissance (Francis I, king 1515-47), marked especially by an all-over use of small-scale classical ornament.
The dining hall of an abbey or monastery, traditionally placed in the south range of the cloister. Also called a refectory.
Stone that is cut, or can be cut, in all directions.
Free Style
By Edgar Wood, 1903-4
Used for buildings of c. 1900 which eschew the use of any particular historical style, drawing instead on a mixture of (usually) late Gothic, Renaissance and Art Nouveau motifs.
Painting on plaster. Al fresco: painting on wet plaster. Fresco secco: painting on dry plaster.
A geometrical ornament composed of a repeating pattern of horizontal and vertical lines or strips.